Time allowed: 3 Hours
Maximum marks: 80
- The question paper is divided into four sections – Section A, Section B, Section C, and Section D.
- The question paper has 26 questions in all.
- All question are Compulsory.
- Marks are indicated against each question.
- Questions from serial number 1 to 7 are Very Short Answer Type Questions. Each question carries 1 mark.
- Questions from serial number 8 to 18 are 3 marks questions. Answer to these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
- Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks question should not exceed 100 words each.
- Questions number 26 is a map question of 5 marks two parts 26 (A) and 26 (B) – 26 (A) from History (2 marks) and 26 (B) from Geography (3 marks). After completion, attach the map inside your answer book.
Section – A
Why were big European powers met in Berlin in 1885? 
Why were merchants from towns in Europe began to move the countryside in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries?
Why did Charles Booth, a liverpool ship owner conduct the first social survey of low skilled workers in the East End of London in 1887 ?
All the major European states were invited in Berlin Conference in 1885. The conference was organised by Otto Von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany. The European powers met to decide the carving up of Africa among them. The states were » Germany, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Portugal, France and Great Britain. No African was invited to this conference.
In seventeenth and eighteenth century merchants from the towns in Europe began to move country side, supplying money to peasants and artisans persuading them to produce for an international market.
Charles Booth, in his survey in 1887, at East end of London, found that 1 million Londoners were very poor and their average age is 29 years.
Why did the Roman Catholic Church impose control over publishers and booksellers? 
Why do novels use vernaculars?
The Roman Catholic Church imposed control over publishers and booksellers because printed religious literature started writing about God and his creation in different ways. They were afraid of the impacts of books on people’s mind.
The novels use the vernacular language, the language spoken by common people so that they can could feel sense of a shared world and belongingness. First such writer was Thomas Hardy.
Classify resources on the basis of origin. 
Resources classification on the basis of origin:
(i) Biotic resources: All living organisms in our environment are known as biotic resources.
Example: Tree, animal, insects etc.
(ii) Abiotic resources: All non-living things present in our environment are known as abiotic resources.
Example: earth, air, water, metals, rocks etc.
‘A challenge is not just any problem but an opportunity for progress.’ Analyse the statement 
A challenge is not a hurdle in the way of our success rather it’s an opportunity for progress. Challenges always force us to prove our worth in a positive way. Different countries face different kinds of challenges:
- Foundational challenge
- Challenge of expansion
- Deepening of democracy
Once we overcome a challenge, we automatically go to a higher level than before.
State any two goals of development other than income. [
Income is definitely one of the most important aspect of our lives, but there are other important goals of development, such as:
- Equal treatment, security and dignity for all citizens.
- Safe and secured environment for women to make progress in every walk of their life.
When we produce goods by exploiting natural resources, in which category of the economic sector such activities come? 
When we produce goods by exploiting natural resources, it comes under the category of ‘Primary sector’.
Give any two examples of informal sector of credit. [
The two informal sectors of credit are:
Describe the impact of ‘Rinderpest’ on people’s livelihoods and local economy in Africa in the 1890s. [3 × 1 = 3]
Describe any three major problems faced by Indian cotton weavers in the nineteenth century.
Describe any three steps taken to clean up London during nineteenth century.
Impact of ‘Rinderpest’ on people’s livelihoods and local economy in Africa were:
(i) Rinderpest killed 90% of cattle in Africa.
(ii) The loss of cattle destroyed Africa livelihood.
(iii) Forced Africans into labour market.
During the eighteenth century, Indian cotton was in high demand throughout the world. But with the starting of the nineteenth century, the demand for cotton declined drastically. The main reasons were:
(i) Industrial revolution in England: With the growth of cotton industry in England, Britain stopped importing cotton textile from India. Thus, the Indian textile industry started losing its control over international trade.
(ii) Indian weavers failed to compete in market: The local market was flooded with Manchester goods (goods imported from Britain). Those imported cotton goods were so cheap that Indian weavers could not easily compete with them.
(iii) Shortage of raw material: Due to the American civil war, cotton supplies from the US was cut off, Britain turned to India. As cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton increased. Weavers in India did not get sufficient cotton and they were forced to buy raw cotton at high prices.
The problems faced by the cotton weavers in India during 19th century are as follows:
(i) A long decline of textile exports from India made them jobless and revenue less. Weaving regions of India narrated sorrowful stories.
(ii) The local market shrank, being glutted with Manchester imports. The imports from Manchester were considered superior. They had thus monopolized the market and this further resulted in decrease in their sales.
(iii) Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.
(iv) By the 1860s, the weavers began to face a new problem. They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of goods quality. Civil War had broken out and cotton supplies from the US were cut off and then Britain had to turn to India for raw cotton. As cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices. In this, situation they suffered heavy losses and problems.
(v) Factories in India began production, flooding the market with machine goods increasing more problems.
Three steps taken to clean up London during nineteenth century were:
- Large blocks of apartment were built. It had been proved that housing scheme brought a magical change in the urban area where land was very important.
- The British rulers with the help of local councils made approximate 1 million houses and rent control was introduced to check housing shortage.
- Green belt was created around London.
- Demands were made for new lungs for the city and some attempts were made to bridge the differences between the city and countryside by making green belt around London.
“The ‘Print Revolution’ had transformed the lives of people changing their relationship to information and knowledge.” Analyse the statement. [3 × 1 = 3]
Distinguish between the themes of ‘Pride and Prejudice’ and ‘Jane Eyre’ novels written by Jane Austen and Charlotte Bronte respectively.
The ‘Print Revolution’ transformed the lives of people changing their relationship to information and knowledge and with institution and authorities. It influenced popular perception and opened up new ways of looking at things:
(i) Printing reduced the cost of books. The time and labour to produce each book came down and multiple copies were being produced with greater ease.
(ii) Due to easy access to books, illiterate persons could listen to the sacred texts of religious books, folk tales and ballads being recited.
(iii) Before print revolution, books were not only expensive but they could not be produced in sufficient numbers. Now books can reach out to wider sections of people.
(i) For both, the novelists, Jane Austen and Charlotte Bronte, the main idea of novels centered around women but both of them had different ideas and opinions.
(ii) The first line of Jane Austen’s ‘Pride and prejudice’ states that “It is a universally acknowledged truth, that a single man in possession of good fortune, must be in want of a wife”. This observation of Austen can be simplified that women were always preoccupied with perception of marriage and money.
(iii) In Charlotte Bronte’s ‘Jane Eyre’, young Jane is shown as independent and assertive, while girls of her time were expected to be quite and well behaved. Jane at the age of ten, protests against the hypocrisy of her elders with startling bluntness.
The novels of Jane Austen give us a glimpse of the world of women in genteel rural society in early-nineteenth-century Britain. They make us think about a society which encouraged women to look for ‘good’ marriages and find wealthy or propertied husbands.
This allows us to see the behaviour of the main charactrers, who are preoccupied with marriage and money, as typifying Austen’s society.
On the other hand, Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre, published in 1874, dealt with women who broke established norms of society before adjusting to them. Such stories allowed women readers to sympathise with rebellious actions.
How has the ever-increasing number of industries in India made worse position by exerting pressure on existing fresh water resources? Explain. [3 × 1 = 3]
(i) India has witnessed intensive industrialization and urbanization for the last few years. The ever-increasing number of industries has made matter worse by exerting pressure on existing fresh water resources. Freshwater is required in thermal energy plants and steel industries on a large scale.
(ii) Industries, apart from being heavy users of water also require power to run it which in turn needs additional water.
(iii) We have to consider a situation where water is sufficiently available but these areas still suffer from water scarcity. This scarcity may be due to bad quality of water or polluted water.
“Dense and efficient network of transport is a prerequisite for local and national development.” Analyse the statement. [3 × 1 = 3]
(i) Whether for an individual or for any industry use, materials and services are required on daily basis. Goods and services do not move from supply points to demand locals on their own. The movement of these goods and services from supply location to demand locations necessitates the need of transport.
(ii) Movements of these goods and services can be over three important domains of our earth i.e., land, water and air. Based on these, transport is divided/classified into land, water and air transport.
(iii) The pace of development of a country and region depends upon the production of goods and services as well as their movement over space within the shortest time. Therefore, efficient means of transport are prerequisite for fast development.
Describe any three provisions of amendment made in ’Indian Constitution’ in 1992 for making ‘Three-Tier’ government more effective and powerful. [3 × 1 = 3]
A major step towards decentralization was taken in 1992. The ‘ constitution was amended to make the third tier of democracy more powerful and effective:
- Now it is constitutionally mandated to hold regular elections for local government bodies
- Seats are reserved in the elected bodies and the executive heads of these institutions for SC/ST/Backward classes. At least one-third of all positions are reserved for women.
- An independent institution called the State Election Commission has been created in each state to conduct Panchayat and Municipal elections.
- The State Governments are required to share some powers and revenue with local government bodies.
Explain the three factors that are crucial in deciding the outcome of the politics of social divisions. [3 × 1 = 3]
Three factors which determine the outcome of politics of social division are:
- Peoples’ perception of their identities: When this is singular, the accommodation of other identifies becomes difficult.
- Representation of a community by political leaders: While representing a community if politicians raise demands that are constitutional then it is easier to accommodate those demands.
- The government’s reaction: If the reasonable demands of a community are suppressed by the government, then it leads to social division, which in turn threaten the integrity of the country.
“Secularism is not an ideology of some political parties or persons, but it is one of the foundations of our country.” Examine the statement. [3 × 1 = 3]
Secularism is not just an ideology of some parties or person. This idea constitutes one of the foundations of our country. This fact has been part of various constitutional provisions, stated herein:
- There is no official religion for the Indian state. The constitution provides all individuals and communities freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion, or not to follow any.
- The constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.
- At the same time, the constitution allows the state to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within religious communities. For example, it bans untouchability.
How is the issue of sustainability important for development? Explain with examples. [3 × 1 = 3]
(i) Sustainable use of natural resources is the process by which economic, industrial and social needs are met but the resources are to be managed and exploited in such a way that the biodiversity, balance in the ecosystem, and the biological cycle like carbon, nitrogen and water cycle are not destroyed.
(ii) Coal, oil and natural gas are chiefly used to provide electricity and to power vehicles. We should take advantage of the abundance of solar, wind, wave, tidal and thermal energy that is free, renewable and sustainable. These resources will provide more than enough green electricity which can then power all the industries, homes and transport that we need.
(iii) Sustainability lays emphasis on environmental protection and checks environmental degradation, moreover, to stop overexploitation and over the use of resources.
Distinguish the service conditions of the organized sector with that of unorganized sector. [3 × 1 = 3]
Organized sector: These sectors are registered by the government and have to follow their rules and regulations.
Unorganized sectors: Such sectors cover small and scattered units which are out of government’s control.
Major differences between both such units are as follows:
|Units of organised sector||Units of unorganised sector|
|1. In organised sectors workers are covered by the security of employment.||These are low paid jobs and often not regular. Employment is not secured.|
|2. Workers are expected to work only for a fixed number of hours, if they work more, then they get overtime payment by the employer.||There are no provisions of overtime, paid leave, holidays, leave due to sickness, etc.|
|3. The factories follow government rules such as Factories Act, Minimum Wages Act, Payment of Gratuity Act etc.||They do not follow government rules. When there is less work, due to season or other reasons some people may be asked to leave without salary or payment.|
Why is cheap and affordable credit important for the country’s development? Explain any three reasons. [3 × 1 = 3]
Cheap and affordable credit plays a crucial role in the country’s development. Reasons are:
- The credit helps people to meet the ongoing expenses of production and thereby develop their business in agricultural and industrial areas.
- For middle-class people, loans help a lot in constructing their houses and to get rid of monthly rents.
- It raises the standard of living and social status of the common man by enabling them to buy automobiles, electronic items etc.
How can consumer awareness be spread among consumers to avoid exploitation in the marketplace? Explain any three ways. [3 × 1 = 3]
Describe the explosive conditions prevailed in Balkans after 1871 in Europe. [5 × 1 = 5]
Describe the role of different religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam.
- After 1871, explosive conditions prevailed in Balkans area in Europe. The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Crotia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs.
- In 19th century, the Ottoman Empire had sought to strengthen itself through modernisation and internal reforms but with very little success.
- One by one, its European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared their own independence.
- The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers.
- Hence, the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggle as their attempts to win back their long lost independence which converted the region into a battleground.
Religion played an important role in the development of anti-colonial feeling:
- Vietnamese religious beliefs were a mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism and local practices. When French introduced Christianity here, the Vietnamese reacted sharply. It angered them.
- As a result, an early Anti-Christianity movement, Scholar’s revolt broke out in 1868. This was led by the officials at the Imperial Court. This was just because they were angered by the spread of Christianity and French power.
- The French suppressed this revolt but this uprising inspired the other patriots to rise up against them. The role of Hao Hao movement led by Huynh-Phu-So in 1939 in the Mekong delta region is also significant in the development of anti-colonial movement in Vietnam.
How did the Non-Cooperation movement start with participation of middle-class people in the cities? Explain its impact on the economic front. [2 + 3 = 5]
Why was Congress reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation? How did women participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.
Non-cooperation movement started with middle-class participation in the cities:
- This movement was launched by Gandhiji in 1920. Its aims were to show resentment to actions considered oppressive like Jallianwala Bagh and Rowlatt Act. Thousands of students left government-controlled school and colleges.
- Teachers, Headmasters resigned and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
- The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except made as to where the justice party, the party of non-Brahmans felt that entering power the council was one way of gaining.
Impact on Economic Front
- Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign clothes were burnt hugely.
- In many areas, traders and merchants refused to trade in foreign goods and some times they even refused to finance foreign trade. The import of foreign trade halved between 1921 and 1922.
- As the boycott movement spread, people used only Indian clothes and began to discard foreign clothes. As a result, the production of Indian textile mills and handloom went up largely.
Gandhiji was convinced that it was the duty of a woman to look after her family and home, they should be good mothers and good wives. And for a long time, Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation. Women’ participation took its way in the following ways:
- During Gandhi Ji’s Salt March thousands of women came out of their houses to listen to him.
- They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.
- Many women were arrested and were sent to jail. In urban areas, these women were from high caste families, e.g., Sarojini Naidu, Satyavati Devi, Kamla Nehru etc. In rural areas they came from rich peasant household.
- Women broke doors of shops, came on the roads and helped the movement leaders.
- In Bombay, a large section of women of Gujrati community was influenced by Gandhiji’ idealism and participated in the National Movement. Bengal being the nerve- center of female education in India, increased the women’s participation in nationalism. In 1930 women rallied before Bethune College, Calcutta in support of Gandhiji’s Civil Disobedience Movement.
“The Government of India has introduced various institutional and technological reforms to improve agriculture in the 1980s and 1990s.” Support this statement with examples. [5 × 1 = 5]
Compare ‘intensive subsistence farming’ with that of ‘commercial farming’ practiced in India.
The Government of India has introduced various institutional and technological reforms under a comprehensive Land Development Programme to improve agriculture in the 1980s and 1990s.
Land Development Programme:
- Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease.
- Establishment of Grameen (regional rural) banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest.
Apart from land development program, the government has initiated many other benefit schemes for the farmers.
- Kisan Credit Card (KCC): Scheme for giving easy and cheap loans to small farmers. Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) for Kisan Credit Card (KCC) holders.
- Special weather bulletins and agricultural programs for farmers were introduced through radio and television channels.
- The government also announced Minimum Support Price (MSP) for various agricultural products like cereals, pulses and others (to check the exploitation of farmers by middlemen).
|Intensive Subsistence Farming||Commercial Farming|
|(i) In this type of farming, crops produced by the farmers are mainly consumed by their families. Surplus production is sold in the nearby local markets.||(i) The farming practice, in which the farmers grow crops for the purpose of trade, it is called commercial farming.|
|(ii) In this kind of farming, more than one crop is cultivated in the agricultural field.||(ii) In this type of farming generally, one crop is cultivated.|
|(iii) It is labour intensive farming.||(iii) Farming is mechanised and is prevalent in areas where farms are large and the market economy is well developed.|
|(iv) It depends on monsoon.||(iv) It uses modern irrigation methods.|
|(v) It is practiced in a small area.Major crops are Food grains, fruits, and vegetables.||(v) It is practiced in a large area.Major crops are cash crops and cereals.|
Why is the economic strength of a country measured by the development of manufacturing industries? Explain with examples. [5 × 1 = 5]
Economic strength of a country is measured by manufacturing industries:
- Manufacturing industries not only help in modernizing agriculture which forms the backbone of the economy, but they also reduce the dependency of people on agriculture.
- Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty from a country.
- Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and brings much needed foreign exchange on an international level.
- Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of furnished goods of a higher value are prosperous and developed.
- India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries as quickly as possible.
Describe any five major functions of political parties performed in a democracy. [5 × 1 = 5]
Functions of Political Parties:
- Candidates are put forward by political parties to contest elections. These candidates may be chosen by the top leaders or by members of the party. In some countries like the USA, members and supporters of a party choose its candidate.
- Parties put forward their policies and programs for voters to choose from them. A government is expected to base its policies on the line taken by the ruling party (Political party then runs government).
- Political parties play a major role in making laws for the country. No law can become a bill unless majority parties support it.
- Political parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes. It is easy for the public to approach their local party leader than a government officer. The local party leader has to listen to the public demand, otherwise, people can reject them in the next elections.
- Parties shape public opinion. They raise and highlight issues. Parties sometimes also launch movements for the resolution of the problem faced by the people.
“Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual.” Justify this statement. [5 × 1 = 5]
“Democracies lead to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens.” Justify this statement.
In this respect democracy
stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual.
Following points can support this statement:
- Democracy promotes equality among citizens. Every citizen has equal rights in a democratic government.
- In improves the quality of decision making because opposition parties play an important role.
- It provides methods to resolve conflicts. Every citizen has the right to go to courts. It also enhances the dignity of an individual.
- It allows room to correct mistakes and is an accountable, responsive and legitimate government.
- It reduces poverty. Every citizen has the right to work in a democratic government, also it accommodates social diversity as India is a secular state. All religions are equal here.
- The passion for respect and freedom are the basis of democracy. It gives dignity also in the case of women. Equal treatment to women is the necessary ingredients of a democratic society.
Democracy leads to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens:
- Democracy has had greater success in setting up regular, free and fair elections.
- In democracy, every citizen has equal right to vote, to profess his/her religion and to get an education.
- In democracy, every citizen can take part in any debate.
- Democracy ensures that the rights of its people are protected by the state and the government functions according to the laws.
- In a democratic setup, there in no distinction between people based on race, religion, caste, colour or birth. Equal opportunities are provided to all to be educated to grow as good citizens and to earn their living.
All mentioned factors prove that democracy leads to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens.
How has foreign trade been integrating markets of different countries? Explain with examples. [5 × 1 = 5]
How do we feel the impact of globalisation on our daily life? Explain with examples.
- Foreign trade provides an opportunity for both producers and buyers to reach beyond the markets of their own country.
- Goods travel from one country to another. There is a huge competition among producers of one country and producers of another country.
- Corripetition among buyers also prevails because they have more choice of goods, over domestically produced goods.
- With the opening of trade, goods travel from 6ne market to another and varieties of goods on the markets rises. Price of similar goods in the two markets tend to become equal.
- For e.g., During Diwali season, buyers in India have the option of choosing between Indian and Chinese lights and bulbs, Chinese lights manufacturers provide an opportunity to expand their business as these lights are cheap and available in larger quantities easily.
Impact of Globalization in our daily life:
- Transportation technology has made much faster delivery of goods across long distances possible and that too at lower rates.
- The invention of computers, the internet, mobile phones, and fax has made contacting each other around the world quite easy.
- New jobs have been created in industries where MNCs have invested.
- The prices of various products have come down due to competition among producers and manufacturers.
- People are getting more employment because some Indian companies have become multinational themselves due to globalisation.
(A) Two features a and b are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked near them:
(a) The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held.
(b) The place where Gandhiji organized ‘Satyagraha’ in favour of cotton mill workers. [2 × 1 = 2]
(B) Locate and label the following with appropriate symbols on the same given outline political map of India. [3 × 1 = 3]
(i) Raja Sansi – International Airport
(ii) Bhadravasti – Iron and Steel Plants
(iii) Software Technology Park of West Bengal